Monday, May 01, 2006

Checklist of Singapore Snakes

Lim and Lee (1989) listed 57 species of snakes that can be found in Singapore. The checklist of Singapore snakes compiled by Lim and Chou (1990) increased the total number of species to 93, by adding another 37 species to the list in Lim and Lee (1989) and omitting the dubious record Enhydris plumbea. Lim and Lim (1992) have a similar list, but with an additional species (Enhydris enhydris), further increasing the total number of snake species in Singapore to 94. The conservation status of 14 snakes were listed in Wee and Ng (1994).

() – doubtful records; _ – almost certainly introduced; R – rare; V – vulnerable.

Boidea (Pythons)
Python reticulatus (Reticulated Python) (Schneider, 1801) 1, 2, 3
Python curtus (Short or Blood Python) Schlegal, 1872 (1), 2, 3

Acrochordidae (File Snakes)
Acrochordus granulatus (Banded File Snake) (Schneider, 1799) 1, 2, 3
Acrochordus javanicus (Javan File Snake or Elephant Trunk Water Snake) Hornstedt, 1787 (1), 2, 3

Xenopeltidae (Sunbeam Snakes)
Xenopeltis unicolor (Sunbeam Snake or Iridescent Earth Snake) Reinwardt, 1827 1, 2, 3

Aniliidae (Pipe Snakes)
Cylindrophis rufus (Red-tailed Pipe Snake) (Laurenti, 1768) 1, 2, 3

Typhlopidae (Blind Snakes)
Ramphotyphlops braminus (Common Blind snake) (Daudin, 1803) 1, 2, 3
Typhlops muelleri (White-bellied or Diard’s Blind Snake) Schlegal, 1839 1, 2, 3
Typhlops lineatus (Striped Blind Snake) Boie, 1827 2, 3

Colubridae (Colubrine Snakes)
Elaphe flavolineata (Common Malayan Racer) (Schlegal, 1837) 1, 2, 3
Elaphe radiata (Copperhead Racer) (F. Boie, 1827) 1, 2, 3
Elaphe porphyracea (Red Mountain Racer) (Cantor, 1839) 2, 3
Elaphe taeniura (Striped Racer or Cave-dwelling Rat Snake) Cope, 1861 (1), 2, 3
Gonyosoma oxycephala (Red-tailed Racer) (F. Boie, 1827) 1, 2, 3, V
Pytas korros (Indo-chinese Rat Snake) (Schlegal, 1837) 1, 2, 3
Pytas mucosus (Banded Rat Snake) (Linnaeus, 1766) (1), (2), 3
Pytas carinatus (Keeled Rat Snake) (Günther, 1858) 1, 2, 3
Zaocys fuscus (White-bellied Rat Snake) Gunther, 1864 2, 3
Sibynophis melanocephalus (Black-Headed Collared Snake) (Gray, 1834) 1, 2, 3
Lycodon aulicus (House Snake) (Linnaeus, 1758) 1, 2, 3
Lycodon subcinctus (Banded Wolf Snake) Boie, 1827 2, 3, R
Dryocalamus subannulatus (Saddled Tree snake) (Dumeril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) 2, 3, V
Oligodon octolineatus (Striped Kukri Snake) (Schneider, 1801) 1, 2, 3
Oligodon purpuracens (Brown Kukri Snake) (Schlegal, 1837) 1, 2, 3, V
Oligodon signatus (Barred Kukri Snake) (Günther, 1864) 2, 3, V
Calamaria lumbricoidea (Variable Reed Snake) H. Boie, 1827 1, 2, 3
Calamaria albiventer (Red-bellied Reed Snake) (Gray, 1835) 2, 3
Calamaria schlegeli schlegeli (Pink-headed Reed Snake) (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) 1, 2, 3
Calamaria prakkei (Prakke’s Reed Snake) Lidth de Jeude, 1893 (2), 3
Pseudorhabdion longiceps (Dwarf Reed Snake) (Cantor, 1847) 1, 2, 3
Liopeltis baliodeirus (Orange-bellied Ringneck) F. Boie, 1827 1, 2, 3, V
Liopeltis tricolor (Tricoloured Ringneck) (Schlegal, 1837) 2, 3
Dendrelaphis pictus (Painted Bronzeback) (Gmelin, 1789) 1, 2, 3
Dendrelaphis formosus (Elegant Bronzeback) (F. Boie, 1827) 1, 2, 3
Dendrelaphis caudolineatus (Striped Bronzeback) (Gray, 1834) 1, 2, 3
Xenelaphis hexagonotus (Malayan Brown Snake) (Cantor, 1847) 1, 2, 3
Chrysopelea paradisi (Paradise Tree Snake) H. Boie, in F. Boie, 1827 1, 2, 3
Chrysopelea pelias (Twin-barred Tree Snake) (Linnaeus, 1758) 1, 2, 3, V
Gonyophis margaritatus (Rainbow Tree Snake) (Peters, 1871) 2, 3
Ahaetulla prasina (Oriental Whip Snake) (F. Boie, 1827) 1, 2, 3
Ahaetulla fasciolata (Speckle-headed Whip Snake) (Fischer, 1885) 2, 3, V
Dryphiops rubescens (Keel-bellied Whip Snake) (Gray, 1834) 1, 2, 3, V
Boiga dendrophila (Mangrove Snake or Gold-ringed Cat Snake) (F. Boie, 1827) 1, 2, 3
Boiga cynodon (Dog-toothed Cat Snake) (H. Boie, 1827) 1, 2, 3, V
Boiga jaspidea (Jasper Cat Snake) (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) 1, 2, 3, V
Boiga drapiezii (White-spotted Cat Snake) (Boie, 1827) (1), 2, 3
Psammodynastes pictus (Painted Mock Viper) Günther, 1858 2, 3, V
Cerberus rynchops (Dog-faced Water Snake) (Schneider, 1799) 1, 2, 3
Homalopsis buccata (Puff-faced Water Snake) (Linnaeus, 1758) 1, 2, 3
Fordonia leucobalia (Crab-Eating Snake) (Schlegal, 1837) 2, 3
Enhydris enhydris (Rainbow Water Snake) (Schneider, 1799) (1), 3
Gerarda prevostiana (Gerard’s Water Snake) (Eydoux & Gervais, 1837) 2, 3
Cantoria violacea (Cantor’s Water Snake) (Girard, 1858) 2, 3
Bitia hydroides (Keel-bellied Water Snake) Gray, 1842 2, 3
Xenochrophis piscator (Chequered Keelback) (Schneider, 1799) (1), 2, 3
Xenochrophis vittatus (Striped Keelback) (Linnaeus, 1754) (1), 2, 3
Xenochrophis trianguligerus (Triangle Keelback) (F. Boie, 1827) 2, 3
Xenochrophis maculatus (Spotted Keelback) (Edeling, 1865) 2, 3, V
Amphiesma petersi (Peter’s Keelback) (Boulenger, 1893) 2, 3
Rhabdophis subminiatus (Red-necked Keelback) (Schlegal, 1837) (1), 2, 3
Macropisthodon rhodomelas (Blue-necked Keelback) (H. Boie, 1827) 1, 2, 3

Elapidae (Cobras, Kraits & Coral Snakes)
Naja sumatrana (Black Spitting Cobra) F. Müller, 1887 1, 2, 3
Ophiophagus hannah (King Cobra) (Cantor, 1836) 1, 2, 3, V
Bungarus fasciatus (Banded Krait) (Schneider, 1801) 1, 2, 3
Bungarus candidus (Malayan Krait) (Linnaeus, 1758) 1, 2, 3
Maticora bivirgata (Blue Malayan Coral Snake) (F. Boie, 1827) 1, 2, 3
Maticora intestinalis (Banded Malayan Coral Snake) (Laurenti, 1768) 1, 2, 3
Calliophis gracilis (Spotted Coral Snake) Gray, 1835 2, 3

Hydrophiidae (Sea Snakes)
Laticauda colubrina (Amphibious Sea Snake) (Schneider, 1799) 1, 2, 3
Aipysurus eydouxii (Marbled Sea Snake) (Gray, 1849) 2, 3
Enhydrina schistosa (Beaked Sea Snake) (Daudin, 1803) 1, 2, 3
Leioselasma cyanocincta (Blue-banded Sea Snake) (Daudin, 1803) 1, 2, 3
Leioselasma spiralis (Tiger Sea Snake) (Shaw, 1802) 2, 3
Thalassophis anomalus (Anomalous Sea Snake) Schmidt, 1852 2, 3
Kolpophis annandalei (Annandale’s Sea Snake) (Laidlaw, 1901) 2, 3
Kerilia jerdoni (Jerdon’s Sea Snake) (Gray, 1849) 2, 3
Praescutata viperina (Olive Sea Snake) (Schmidt, 1852) 1, 2, 3
Acalyptophis peronii (Eyelash Sea Snake) (Duméril, 1853) 2, 3
Hydrophis klossi (Kloss’s Sea Snake) Boulenger, 1912 2, 3
Hydrophis fasciatus (Barred Sea Snake) (Schneider, 1799) 2, 3
Hydrophis melanosoma (Black-banded Sea Snake) Günther, 1864 2, 3
Hydrophis caerulescens (Blue Sea Snake) (Shaw, 1802) 2, 3
Hydrophis brookii (Brooke’s Sea Snake) Günther, 1872 2, 3
Hydrophis ornatus (Ornate Sea Snake) (Gray, 1842) 2, 3
Hydrophis torquatus (Grey Sea Snake) Günther, 1864 2, 3
Lapemis curtus (Short Sea Snake) Shaw, 1802 2, 3
Astrotia stokesii (Stoke’s Sea Snake) (Gray, 1846) 2, 3
Microcephalophis gracilis (Small-headed Sea Snake) (Shaw, 1802) 2, 3
Pelamis platyurus (Yellow-bellied Sea Snake) (Linnaeus, 1766) 2, 3

Viperidae (Vipers)
Trimeresurus wagleri (Wangler’s Pit Viper) (H. Boie, 1827) 1, 2, 3
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (Shore or Mangrove Pit Viper) (Gray, 1830) 1, 2, 3
Trimeresurus sumatranus (Sumatran Pit Viper) (Raffles, 1822) (1), 2, 3
Trimeresurus popeiorum (Pope’s Pit Viper) Smith 1937 (2), 3
Trimeresurus monticola (Mountain Pit Viper) Günther, 1864 (2), 3


References:

1. Lim, F. L. K. & Lee, M. T. M., 1989. Fascinating Snakes of Southeast Asia – an Introduction. Tropical Press, Kuala Lumpur, p. 115-117.

2. Lim, K. K. P. & Chou, L. M., 1990. The herpetofauna of Singapore. In: Chou, L. M. & Ng, P. K. L. (Ed.), Essays in Zoology. Papers commemorating the 40th Anniversary of the Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore, p. 53-55.

3. Lim, K. K. P. & Lim, F. L. K., 1992. A Guide To The Amphibians & Reptiles Of Singapore. Singapore Science Centre, p. 144-149.

4. Ng., P. K. L. & Wee, Y. C., 1994. The Singapore Red Data Book – Threatened Plants & Animals Of Singapore. The Nature Society (Singapore), p. 331.

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